In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life–mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but [we] can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends." These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups.
Kinship can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves, or it can refer to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures (i.e. kinship studies). Over its history, anthropology has developed a number of related concepts and terms in the study of kinship, such as descent, descent group, lineage, affinity/affine, consanguinity/cognate and fictive kinship. Further, even within these two broad usages of the term, there are different theoretical approaches.
In number theory, friendly numbers are two or more natural numbers with a common abundancy, the ratio between the sum of divisors of a number and the number itself. Two numbers with the same abundancy form a friendly pair; n numbers with the same abundancy form a friendly n-tuple.
A number that is not part of any friendly pair is called solitary.
The abundancy of n is the rational number σ(n) / n, in which σ denotes the sum of divisors function. A number n is a friendly number if there exists m ≠ n such that σ(m) / m = σ(n) / n. Note that abundancy is not the same as abundance which is defined as σ(n) − 2n.
Abundancy may also be expressed as where denotes a divisor function with equal to the sum of the k-th powers of the divisors of n.
The numbers 1 through 5 are all solitary. The smallest friendly number is 6, forming for example the friendly pair 6 and 28 with abundancy σ(6) / 6 = (1+2+3+6) / 6 = 2, the same as σ(28) / 28 = (1+2+4+7+14+28) / 28 = 2. The shared value 2 is an integer in this case but not in many other cases. There are several unsolved problems related to the friendly numbers.
PHOENIX - Grandparents and close relatives raising children in kinship care will get a boost in their monthly stipend, thanks to legislation signed today by GovernorDoug Ducey... kinship families, foster families, non-profit organizations providing support, Court Appointed Special Advocates, and case workers.
Political alliances and influential clans are also organized around tribal or regional kinship, which goes back centuries to the times when today’s Central Asian nations were a group of separate tribes ... But for ordinary people, these kinship-based networks are often a source of social cohesion and mutual support.
Last week Bury Tomorrow returned home, playing an explosive, powerful set on Download Festival’s main stage ... READ MORE. Download Festival 2022 review. metal’s fearsome energy rages on the smaller stages ... CREDIT. Press... “You look at Download and you’re in a field full of people you don’t know, but you feel a kinship and a friendship towards them ... .
What Brooks didn’t know at the time was her new family was a kinship family. Brooks, the communications director for Vermont Kin as Parents and the Community of Vermont Elders, used her personal experience to help guide her in writing and directing the new documentary, “The KinshipExperience.”.