In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life–mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but [we] can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends." These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups.
Kinship can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves, or it can refer to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures (i.e. kinship studies). Over its history, anthropology has developed a number of related concepts and terms in the study of kinship, such as descent, descent group, lineage, affinity/affine, consanguinity/cognate and fictive kinship. Further, even within these two broad usages of the term, there are different theoretical approaches.
In number theory, friendly numbers are two or more natural numbers with a common abundancy, the ratio between the sum of divisors of a number and the number itself. Two numbers with the same abundancy form a friendly pair; n numbers with the same abundancy form a friendly n-tuple.
A number that is not part of any friendly pair is called solitary.
The abundancy of n is the rational number σ(n) / n, in which σ denotes the sum of divisors function. A number n is a friendly number if there exists m ≠ n such that σ(m) / m = σ(n) / n. Note that abundancy is not the same as abundance which is defined as σ(n) − 2n.
Abundancy may also be expressed as where denotes a divisor function with equal to the sum of the k-th powers of the divisors of n.
The numbers 1 through 5 are all solitary. The smallest friendly number is 6, forming for example the friendly pair 6 and 28 with abundancy σ(6) / 6 = (1+2+3+6) / 6 = 2, the same as σ(28) / 28 = (1+2+4+7+14+28) / 28 = 2. The shared value 2 is an integer in this case but not in many other cases. There are several unsolved problems related to the friendly numbers.
Christensen, director of Richland-Wilkin Kinship, is talking about the 15th AnnualAmazing Race... Kinship was pleased with how the event turned out, Christensen said, but is even more proud to bring back the traditional and familiar adrenaline-pumping, family friendly fun.
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Genomes from University of Liverpool excavations of burials around some of the earliest houses in history contributed to a major study by an international team of geneticists, anthropologists and archaeologists, revealing more about the remarkable diversity of kinship types in ancient human societies.
The best of friendships can often be formed under the rarest of circumstances. Not all that often, however, is kinship found by reaching across the political aisle, especially not in these highly-charged, divided days. But that’s exactly what happened over the last year between the county’s two political party chairs ... “Because it wasn’t about me ... .
The kinship that exists between Botswana and SA is an ancient as well as eternal one. Both countries are inevitably affected by one another’s political and social stability. Furthermore, our respective economies are mutually beneficial ... Tumelo Ralinala. Gauteng ... .
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VATICAN CITY (CNS) -- PopeFrancis summarized his "pilgrimage of faith and penitence" to Iraq in a prayer. ... (CNS photo/Paul Haring) ... The strength to move forward, to rebuild and to restore relationships of kinship and respect across religious and ethnic boundaries was a constant refrain during Pope Francis' trip ... (CNS photo/Paul Haring).